Fenqing , or "FQ" , which is itself an abbreviation for ''Fennu Qingnian'' , means literally "angry youth". It mainly refers to youth who display a high level of Chinese nationalism. This term first appeared in Hong Kong in the 1970s, referring to those young people who were not satisfied with Chinese society and sought reform. It has now evolved into a term used predominantly in Internet slang. Whether ''fenqing'' is derogatory or not usually depends on the person. Critics describe them with negative terms including "粪青" , which can be changed further to "fenfen" as a derogatory nickname.
The phenomenon of fenqing arose after the "reform and opening up" of the , during the period of fast economic development that occurred in China. Some people argue that ''fenqing'' are a natural reaction to recent neoconservatism in Japan and the neoconservatism in the United States. ''Fenqing'' and these foreign neo-conservative elements intensely dislike each other, but all of them share certain similarities: distrust of foreign powers, support for the military and boundary disputes, etc. However, ''fenqing'' are not quite the same as .
* As a group, ''fenqing'' are very diverse in their opinions. However, they are usually nationalistic and patriotic, and very much concerned with political issues, especially those relating to Japan, Taiwan, Tibet, or the United States.
* They often harbour negative attitudes towards Japan due to the by Imperial Japan, and support aggressive political stances towards Japan. For example, many believe that the for Japanese war crimes are insincere and inadequate . More recent incidents, such a former Japanese prime minsters patronage of Yasukuni Shrine, territorial disputes surrounding the Senkaku Islands , and the by uyoku dantai, lead these young people to conclude that the Japanese government is again seeking to expand militarily. These anti-Japanese sentiments are not necessarily only directed against the Japanese government and military, but often fiercely towards the , economy, and .
* Many support Chinese boycotts of Japanese products, for historical reasons and in reaction to events described above.
* They may dislike Japanophiles and other Chinese who are Westernized, calling them Hanjian .
* Most view Taiwan as a part of China, and believe that Taiwan independence should be prevented by any means necessary. Many ''fenqing'' tend to consider war to be feasible, if not immediately necessary. A few may favor the use of nuclear weapons against Taiwan.
* On Sino-American relations, most believe that China needs to learn from the United States; though a minority believe that is unnecessary. Most believe that the United States and China will ultimately develop a balance of power with their own spheres of influence, with competition as well as cooperation. Only the extreme minority believes a war with the United States is impending and the most likely spark being Taiwan.
* They generally view American or Western attention to issues such as human rights, Falun Gong, Tibet, etc. as attempts to undermine the rise of China. Most support the ideal of democracy, but view Western attempts to spread democracy as self-serving, subversive propaganda. However, only a few truly believe in communism.
* Some have the view that the Chinese government is invincible and justified at all cases. They may unconditionally defend all action by the Communist Party of China.
* Some are very passionate about irredentist claims. In addition to the official claims made by the People's Republic of China, such as Taiwan, Arunachal Pradesh, the Senkaku Islands, and the South China Sea Islands, some ''fenqing'' also make irredentist claims to Outer Mongolia, Tuva, Outer Manchuria, the Hukawng Valley of northern Myanmar, parts of Central Asia east of Lake Balkhash, Bhutan, Ladakh, and Sikkim.
* They generally abhor political corruption within the government and government organizations. They also generally perceive the government as being too nice or ineffectual in a variety of issues, such as the Taiwan Straits, relations with Japan or the U.S., and Tibetan and Xinjiang independence.
* For some their role models are Lu Xun and the activists of the May Fourth Movement. Some ''fenqing'' believe if Lu Xun were still alive today, he would continue fiercely criticizing the government.