Tuesday, October 7, 2008

Fu character

Posting the "" is a tradition for Chinese people during Spring Festival each year. "福" is difficult to translate into English; it means something like "幸福" and "福气" . Posting the "福" character represents people's wish for a good life and happy future.

The "福" character is often posted upside-down. It is said that this is because the character for "upside-down", "倒" , is a homonym of the character for "to arrive", "到" . So this means that "福" is "arriving".

Four Treasures of the Study

Four Treasures of the Study is an expression used to refer to the ink brush, inkstick, paper and inkstone used in Chinese calligraphy. In Korea, it is usually written as ???? "Mun bang sa woo", which means "Four Friends of the Study." The name stems from the time of the Southern and Northern Dynasties .

Foot binding

Foot binding was a custom practiced on young girls or females for approximately one thousand years in China, beginning in the 10th century and ending in the early 20th century.

According to a study conducted by the , "As the practice waned, some girls' feet were released after initial binding, leaving less severe deformities." Some effects of foot binding are permanent. In the 1990s and early 2000s, some elderly Chinese women still suffered from disabilities related to bound feet.

In Chinese foot binding, young girls' feet were wrapped in tight bandages so that they could not grow and develop normally; they would, instead, break and become highly deformed, not growing past 4-6 inches . As the girl reached adulthood, her feet would remain small and prone to infection, paralysis, and muscular atrophy. Though the process had made her completely incapable of any strenuous physical labour outside, or walking for great distances without aid, women with bound feet had no greater difficulty preparing meals or doing general household chores than women with unbound feet. If a girl's feet were bound in this manner, four toes on each foot would break within a year; the first remained intact. The arch had to be well-developed for the perfect "lotus foot" to be formed, so some women would bind their girls' feet at a later age; the ideal was a 3-in. foot , and no longer than 4 in , called silver lotuses. Bound feet would bend, becoming so concave they were sometimes described as "lotus hooks". The binding process resulted in intense pain and caused phalanges to fracture easily, and additionally resulted in an unsteady walk, referred to as the "lotus gait."

The earliest recorded opponent to footbinding was a writer from the Song Dynasty called Ch'e Jo-shui.

The Manchus, who conquered China in the 17th century, tried without success to abolish the practice. Manchu women were forbidden from binding their feet or the feet of their daughters. Instead they wore 'flower bowl' shoes which gave the illusion of tiny feet. Bound feet became an important differentiating marker between Manchu and Han. One of the objectives of the Taiping Rebellion was to end footbinding in the name of gender equality.

The practice continued into the 20th century, when a combination of Chinese and Western called for reform and a true anti-footbinding movement emerged. Educated Chinese began to understand that it made them appear barbaric to foreigners, s argued that it weakened the nation, for enfeebled women inevitably produced weak sons, and feminists attacked it because it caused women to suffer.. At the turn of the 20th century, gentry women, such as Kwan Siew-Wah, a unique pioneer feminist, advocated for the end of female foot-binding. Kwan herself refused the foot-binding imposed on her since her youth so that she could grow normal feet.

In 1911, after the fall of the Qing Dynasty, the new Republic of China government banned foot binding; women were told to unwrap their feet lest they be killed. Some women's feet grew 1/2 - 1 inch after the unwrapping, though some found the new growth process extremely painful and emotionally and culturally devastating. Societies developed to support the abolition of footbinding, with contractual agreements between families promising their infant son in marriage to an infant daughter that would not have her feet bound. When the Communists took power in 1949, they maintained the strict prohibition on footbinding, which is still in effect today.

Reception and appeal

Bound feet were considered intensely erotic. Qing Dynasty sex manuals listed 48 different ways of playing with women's bound feet. Some men preferred never to see a woman's bound feet, so they were always concealed within tiny "lotus shoes". Feng Xun is recorded as stating, "If you remove the shoes and bindings, the aesthetic feeling will be destroyed forever." For them, the erotic effect was a function of the lotus gait, the tiny steps and swaying walk of a woman whose feet had been bound. The very fact that the bound foot was concealed from men's eyes was, in and of itself, sexually appealing. On the other hand, an uncovered foot would also give off a foul odor, as various would colonise the unwashable folds. The other primary attribute of a woman having bound feet was to limit her mobility, altering the means by which females were allowed to be a part of politics and of the world at large. It also gave the woman an irreversible dependency on her family. Thus bound feet became an alluring symbol of chastity, as a bound foot woman was largely restricted to her home and could not venture far without an escort to help her, thus denying any advances upon her and ensuring her total devotion to her husband.


A mother or grandmother typically began binding her daughter's or granddaughter's feet when the child was between the ages of four and seven. The process was started before the arch of the foot had a chance to properly develop. Binding usually started during the winter months so that the feet were numb, meaning the pain would not be as extreme .

First, each foot would be soaked in a warm mixture of herbs and animal blood. This concoction caused any necrotised flesh to fall off . Then her toenails were cut back as far as possible to prevent ingrowth and subsequent infections. To prepare her for what was to come next the girl's feet were delicately massaged. Silk or cotton bandages, ten feet long and two inches wide, were prepared by soaking them in the same blood and herb mix as before. Each of the toes were then broken and wrapped in the wet bandages, which would constrict when drying, and pulled tightly downwards toward the heel. There may have been deep cuts made in the sole to facilitate this .

This ritual would be repeated every two days, with fresh bindings. Every time the bandages were rebound they would be pulled tighter making this process continually painful. The most common ailment of bound feet was infection. Toenails would ingrow and could lead to flesh rotting, occasionally causing the toes to drop off. Disease inevitably followed infection meaning that death could result from foot binding. Occasionally, the ball of the foot would grow directly into the heel. As the girl grew older, she was more at risk from medical problems. Older women were more likely to break hips and other bones in falls and were less able to stand up from sitting.

Foot binding in literature and film

The bound foot has played a prominent part in many works of literature, both Chinese and non-Chinese. These depictions are sometimes based on observation or research and sometimes on rumor or supposition. This is only to be expected when a practice is so emotionally charged. Sometimes, as in the case of Pearl Buck's ''The Good Earth'', the accounts are relatively neutral.

Anchee Min describes a graphic depiction of a young girl's foot binding in her memoir ''Red Azalea'', as well as another's refusal to have her feet bound in ''Becoming Madame Mao''.

Lisa See has read widely and writes about foot binding in ''Snow Flower and the Secret Fan'' and ''Peony in Love''.

Li Juzhen wrote a satirical novel ''Jinghua yuan'', translated as ''Flowers in the Mirror'' which includes a visit to the mythical Kingdom of Women. There it is the men who must bear children, menstruate, and bind their feet. The recent Chinese author Feng Jicai's novel ''Three Inch Golden Lotus'' presents a satirical picture of the movement to abolish the practice.

In the novel and miniseries ''Broken Trail'', by Alan Geoffrion, one of the young Chinese slaves has bound feet and relies heavily on others for support while walking.

Isabelle Allende's novel ''Daughter of Fortune'' includes a character whose feet have been bound, as well as a several passages about the aesthetics of foot-binding.

Diana Gabaldon's novel '''' includes a Chinese character who explains his foot binding and the sexual aspect of it.

Ji-li Jiang wrote the book Red Scarf Girl and in it Ji li's grandmother had incredibly tiny feet (smaller than three inches]] due to her binding her feet as a young child.

James Clavell's novel '''' describes a bride with bound feet and the custom of binding the feet.

Kathryn Harrison's novel ''The Binding Chair'' describes the process of foot-binding, as well as exploring some of the trauma associated with the practice.

Fictional accounts

* Li Ju-chen , ''Flowers in the Mirror'' translated, edited by Lin Tai-yi .
* Lisa See, ''Snow Flower and the Secret Fan: A novel''
* Jicai Feng , ''The Three-Inch Golden Lotus'' .
* Kathryn Harrison, ''The Binding Chair, or, a Visit from the Foot Emancipation Society: A Novel'' .

Flash marriage

Flash marriage is the translation of a Chinese term that originated in the early 21st century to describe a marriage between partners who wed after knowing one another for less than 7 months.

The phenomenon first appeared among modern young couples in China's large cities, where the financial burdens of keeping up a long-term relationship before marriage have proven too expensive for many couples. The soaring prices of immovable property in these cities has made such speedy marriages more economical.



Fenqing , or "FQ" , which is itself an abbreviation for ''Fennu Qingnian'' , means literally "angry youth". It mainly refers to youth who display a high level of Chinese nationalism. This term first appeared in Hong Kong in the 1970s, referring to those young people who were not satisfied with Chinese society and sought reform. It has now evolved into a term used predominantly in Internet slang. Whether ''fenqing'' is derogatory or not usually depends on the person. Critics describe them with negative terms including "粪青" , which can be changed further to "fenfen" as a derogatory nickname.


The phenomenon of fenqing arose after the "reform and opening up" of the , during the period of fast economic development that occurred in China. Some people argue that ''fenqing'' are a natural reaction to recent neoconservatism in Japan and the neoconservatism in the United States. ''Fenqing'' and these foreign neo-conservative elements intensely dislike each other, but all of them share certain similarities: distrust of foreign powers, support for the military and boundary disputes, etc. However, ''fenqing'' are not quite the same as .

* As a group, ''fenqing'' are very diverse in their opinions. However, they are usually nationalistic and patriotic, and very much concerned with political issues, especially those relating to Japan, Taiwan, Tibet, or the United States.

* They often harbour negative attitudes towards Japan due to the by Imperial Japan, and support aggressive political stances towards Japan. For example, many believe that the for Japanese war crimes are insincere and inadequate . More recent incidents, such a former Japanese prime minsters patronage of Yasukuni Shrine, territorial disputes surrounding the Senkaku Islands , and the by uyoku dantai, lead these young people to conclude that the Japanese government is again seeking to expand militarily. These anti-Japanese sentiments are not necessarily only directed against the Japanese government and military, but often fiercely towards the , economy, and .


* Many support Chinese boycotts of Japanese products, for historical reasons and in reaction to events described above.
* They may dislike Japanophiles and other Chinese who are Westernized, calling them Hanjian .
* Most view Taiwan as a part of China, and believe that Taiwan independence should be prevented by any means necessary. Many ''fenqing'' tend to consider war to be feasible, if not immediately necessary. A few may favor the use of nuclear weapons against Taiwan.
* On Sino-American relations, most believe that China needs to learn from the United States; though a minority believe that is unnecessary. Most believe that the United States and China will ultimately develop a balance of power with their own spheres of influence, with competition as well as cooperation. Only the extreme minority believes a war with the United States is impending and the most likely spark being Taiwan.
* They generally view American or Western attention to issues such as human rights, Falun Gong, Tibet, etc. as attempts to undermine the rise of China. Most support the ideal of democracy, but view Western attempts to spread democracy as self-serving, subversive propaganda. However, only a few truly believe in communism.
* Some have the view that the Chinese government is invincible and justified at all cases. They may unconditionally defend all action by the Communist Party of China.
* Some are very passionate about irredentist claims. In addition to the official claims made by the People's Republic of China, such as Taiwan, Arunachal Pradesh, the Senkaku Islands, and the South China Sea Islands, some ''fenqing'' also make irredentist claims to Outer Mongolia, Tuva, Outer Manchuria, the Hukawng Valley of northern Myanmar, parts of Central Asia east of Lake Balkhash, Bhutan, Ladakh, and Sikkim.
* They generally abhor political corruption within the government and government organizations. They also generally perceive the government as being too nice or ineffectual in a variety of issues, such as the Taiwan Straits, relations with Japan or the U.S., and Tibetan and Xinjiang independence.
* For some their role models are Lu Xun and the activists of the May Fourth Movement. Some ''fenqing'' believe if Lu Xun were still alive today, he would continue fiercely criticizing the government.

Fan Lanmao

"Fan Lanmao"/"Fǎn Lánmāo" is a group that reproving the Chinese cartoon 3000 Whys of Blue Cat and its lead role .

Face (social concept)

Face refers to two separate but related concepts in Chinese social relations. One is mianzi , and the other is lian , which are both used commonly in everyday speech rather than in formal writings.

''Lian'' is the confidence of society in a person's moral character, while ''mianzi'' represents social perceptions of a person's . For a person to maintain face is important with Chinese social relations because face translates into power and influence and affects . A loss of ''lian'' would result in a loss of trust within a social network, while a loss of ''mianzi'' would likely result in a loss of authority. To illustrate the difference, gossiping about someone stealing from a cash register would cause a loss of ''lian'' but not ''mianzi''. Repeatedly interrupting one's boss as he is trying to speak may cause the boss a loss of ''mianzi'' but not ''lian.''

When trying to avoid conflict, Chinese in general will avoid causing another person to lose ''mianzi'' by not bringing up embarrassing facts in public. Conversely, when challenging authority and another person's standing within a community, Chinese will often attempt to cause a loss of ''lian'' or ''mianzi''. A very public example of this occurred during the Tiananmen protests of 1989 when Wu'er Kaixi scolded Premier Li Peng for being late to a meeting with the demonstrators, resulting in Li's loss of ''mianzi'' because he was seen as either tardy or insincere about the meeting.

Notice that directly lying does not cause a loss of face. For example, if a flight is cancelled by an airline, then they may lie that it is merely delayed. Inability to arrange the trip would cause a loss of face, while lying that it is delayed would help to save face.
So-called "polite lies" are acceptable.

Similar concepts also exist in , Korean, , , Indian, Japanese, Vietnamese and cultures. See also embarrassment in Western cultures.

East Asian age reckoning

East Asian age reckoning is a concept that originated in China and is used in East Asian countries. Several East Asian cultures, such as , , , and , share a traditional way of counting a person's . Newborns start at one year old, and each passing of a New Year, rather than the birthday, adds one year to the person's age; this results in people being between 1 and 2 years older in Asian reckoning than in the Western version. Today this system is commonly used in Koreans' daily life, with the exception of the legal system and newspapers. In China and Japan it is used for traditional fortune-telling or religion, and it is disappearing in daily life between peoples.


In either the traditional or modern age system, the word ''sui'' , meaning "years of age", is used for age counting. The traditional age system is referred to as ''xusui'' , and the modern age system is referred to as ''zhousui'' or ''shisui'' .

In the traditional age system, a year is added because of the gestation time in the womb.


Japanese uses the word ''sai'' as a for both the traditional and modern age system.

The traditional system of age reckoning, or ''kazoedoshi'' , was rendered obsolete by law in 1902 when Japan officially adopted the western system, ''man nenrei'' . However, the traditional system was still commonly used, so in 1950 another law was established to encourage people to use the western system.

Today the traditional system is mainly used by the elderly. Elsewhere its use is limited to traditional ceremonies, divinations, and obituaries.


Koreans generally refer to their age in units called ''sal'' , using Korean numerals in ordinal form. Thus, a person is one ''sal'' during the first calendar year of life, and ten ''sal'' during the tenth calendar year.

The 100th day anniversary and the first anniversary of birth , call for large celebrations, and Koreans celebrate their birthdays, even though every Korean gains one year on New Year's Day. Because the first year comes at birth and the second on New Year's Day, a child born, for example, on December 29 will reach two years of age on January 1, when they are only three days old in western reckoning.

In modern Korea, the Western age system is widely known and referred to as ''man na'i'' , although the traditional system is most often used. For example, ''man yeol sal'' means "full ten years", or "ten years old" in English. The Korean word ''dol'' means years elapsed, identical to the English "years old," but is only used to refer to the first few birthdays. ''Cheot-dol'' or simply ''dol'' refers to the first Western-equivalent birthday, ''du-dol'' refers to the second, and so on.

In some countries, some people use the Western system and some use the East Asian system. Most Koreans, especially of the generation before the 1960s, consider themselves to be one ''sal'' older on New Year’s Day by the Gregorian calendar and celebrate their birthday by the instead of the Gregorian calendar. The birthday by the lunar calendar is called ‘?? ??’ and ‘?? ??’ is the birthday by Gregorian calendar.

For official government uses, documents, and legal procedures, the western age system is always used. Regulations regarding age limits on alcohol and tobacco use, as well as the age of consent, are all based on the western system .

Death anniversary

A death anniversary is a custom observed in several Asian cultures including China, India, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam, as well as in other nations with significant overseas , , , and populations. Like a birthday, it is celebrated each year, but instead of on the date of birth of the individual being celebrated, it is celebrated on the day on which a family member or other significant individual . There are also similar memorial services that are held at different intervals, such as every week.

Although primarily a manifestation of ancestor worship, the tradition has also been associated with Confucianism and Buddhism or Hinduism .


In China, a death anniversary is called ''jìchén'' or ''jìrì'' . This type of ceremony dates back thousands of years in China and historically involved making sacrifices to the spirits of one's ancestors.


In India, a death anniversary is known as ''shraadh''. The first death anniversary is called a ''barsy''.


In Japan, a death anniversary is called ''meinichi'' , ''kishin'' , or ''kijitsu'' or ''kinichi'' . Monthly observances of a death are known as ''tsuki meinichi'' , while annual anniversaries are known as ''shōtsuki meinichi'' .


In Korea, ancestor worship ceremonies are referred to by the generic term ''jerye'' . Notable examples of ''jerye'' include ''Munmyo jerye'' and ''Jongmyo jerye'', which are performed periodically each year for venerated scholars and kings of ancient times, respectively.

The ceremony held on the anniversary of a family member's death is called ''gije'' , and is celebrated by families as a private ceremony. For such occasions, the women of the family traditionally prepare an elaborate set of dishes, including ''tteok'', '''', '''', and so forth.


In Vietnam, a death anniversary is called '''', ''ngày gi?'' , ''?ám gi?'' , or ''b?a gi?'' . It is a festive occasion, at which members of an extended family gather together. Female family members traditionally spend the entire day cooking an elaborate banquet in honor of the deceased individual, which will then be enjoyed by all the family members. In addition, sticks of incense are burned in honor and commemoration of the deceased person. It is not unusual for a family to celebrate several ''gi?'' per year, so the ceremony serves as a time for families to reunite, much like the Vietnamese new year, T?t. The rituals are the responsibility of whoever inherits the ancestral estates, typically the deceased's most senior descendant.

Although a ''gi?'' is usually a private ceremony attended only by family members , some are commemorated by large segments of the population. The commemoration of the in , the legendary founders of the first Vietnamese kingdom in Vietnam's remote past, and of the Trung Sisters are widely participated. In March 2007 ''Gi? t? Hùng V??ng'' became a . As in all traditional commemorations, the Chinese calendar is used.

In Vietnamese culture, certain special, traditional dishes are only prepared for death anniversary banquets. In addition, favorite foods of the deceased person being honored are also prepared. Chicken, a particularly prized meat in Vietnam, is often cooked as well. In Central Vietnam, small stuffed glutinous rice balls wrapped in leaves called ''bánh ít'' are such a dish. Because the preparation of so many complex dishes is complex and time-consuming, some families purchase or hire caterers to prepare certain dishes.


Zupu is a Chinese clan's register , which contains stories of the clan's origins, male lineage and illustrious members. The register is usually updated regularly by the eldest person in the extended family, who hands on this responsibility to the next generation. Updating Zupu is a very important task in Chinese tradition, and can be traced back thousands of years. After several generations, the local clan lineage will often publish a compendium of these zupus. The overwhelming majority of zupus remain in private hands, though a large number may be found in the Beijing University, Shanghai Library , Cornell University and Toyo Bunko.

Zhongnanhai (cigarette)

Zhongnanhai is a brand of cigarettes in China; It is highly popular and holds a large market share in beijing. It is also popular in japanese market as well, for it's light flavor.

The name ''Zhongnanhai'' is also that of a central government complex in Beijing. Zhongnanhai cigarettes are generally produced in seven varieties: 1 mg, Menthol 1 mg, 3 mg, 5 mg, 8 mg, "Special" 8 mg, and 10 mg, referring to tar content. The official website refers to other varieties such as "12 mg" and "Red", which, however, are reported not to be widely available on the Chinese market. The pack text states that the cigarettes are made with "a choice blend of the world's finest tobaccos and herb".

Zhongnanhai cigarettes used to be special made cigarettes for Chairman Mao in late 60s.

Zhonghua minzu

Zhonghua minzu (: 中華民族; or Chinese nation, refers to the modern notion of a Chinese nationality transcending ethnic divisions, with a central identity to China as a whole. It includes peoples who have historically interacted, contributed and assimilated to various extents with Chinese civilization.

The boundaries of ''Zhonghua minzu'' are fuzzy but most Chinese today use the term to include all peoples within the territorial boundaries of China integrated as one national, political, cultural and perhaps even ideological-moral group. It is sometimes also extended to overseas Chinese.

''Zhonghua'' refers to the concept of "China" and is the term used in the formal names for both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. ''Minzu'' can be translated as "nation", "people", or "ethnic group".

Confusion can arise because the term "Chinese" in Western languages is often used to refer both to Zhonghua minzu and to the ethnicity, two concepts which are usually kept distinct among modern Chinese speakers.


The immediate roots of the ''Zhonghua minzu'' lie in the Qing Empire, a multi-ethnic empire created in the 17th century by the Manchus. Faced with the necessity to legitimize their rule over the different peoples that they had conquered, the Manchus sought to portray themselves as ideal Confucian rulers for the Chinese, Grand khans for the Mongols, and Chakravartin kings for Tibetan Buddhists. This involved developing clear ethnic or religious identities within the empire. Administratively, the empire was divided into the provinces of China and the territories of Mongols, Tibetans, and Muslims, which were not subject to the control of the Chinese bureaucracy. Settlement of Han Chinese in these territories was forbidden, the law was later revise to allow resettlement in areas of disputed border to solidify chinese claim. In this fashion, the Qing court intended and to a large part succeeded in gaining the loyalty of the large Han Chinese , whose cooperation was essential to govern China, as well as other groups such as the Mongols, who acknowledged the Qing as successors to Chinggis Khan. Qing policy on these territories only changed with the establishment of Xinjiang as a province of China in 1884.

In the late 19th century, the identities which the Qing promoted were modified under the influence of Western concepts of ethnicity and nationality. Chinese nationalists such as Sun Yat-sen initially planned to expel the Manchus as "foreign invaders" and establish a Chinese nation-state modelled closely after Germany and Japan. Fearing, however, that this restrictive view of the ethnic nation-state would result in the dismemberment and domination of the Qing empire by Western powers, Chinese nationalists discarded this concept and extended the scope of China to cover the entire territory of the Qing state. The abdication of the Qing emperor inevitably led to controversy about the status of territories in Tibet and Mongolia. While the emperor formally bequeathed all the Qing territories to the new republic, it was the position of Mongols and Tibetans that their allegiance had been to the Qing monarch; with the abdication of the Qing, they owed no allegiance to the new Chinese state. This was rejected by the Republic of China and subsequently the People's Republic of China.

This development in Chinese thinking was mirrored in the expansion of the meaning of the term ''Zhonghua minzu''. Originally coined by the late Qing philologist Liang Qichao, ''Zhonghua minzu'' initially referred only to the Han Chinese. It was then expanded to include the Five Races Under One Union, based on the ethnic categories of the Qing. Sun Yatsen further expanded this concept when he wrote,

The concept of ''Zhonghua minzu'' was first publicly espoused by President Yuan Shikai in 1912, shortly after the overthrow of the Qing Empire and the founding of the Republic of China. Facing the imminent independence of Outer Mongolia from China, Yuan Shikai stated, "Outer Mongolia is part of ''Zhonghua minzu'' and has been of one family for centuries" .

After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the concept of ''Zhonghua minzu'' became influenced by Soviet nationalities policy. Officially, the PRC is a unitary state composed of , of which the is by far the largest. The concept of ''Zhonghua minzu'' is seen as an all-encompassing category consisting of people within the borders of the PRC.

This term has continued to be invoked and remains a powerful concept in China into the 21st century. In mainland China, it continues to hold use as the leaders of China need to unify into one political entity a highly diverse set of ethnic and social groups as well as to mobilize the support of overseas Chinese in developing China.

In Taiwan, it is invoked as a unifying concept that includes the people of both Taiwan and mainland China without a possible interpretation that Taiwan is part the People's Republic of China, whereas terms such as "Chinese people" can be, given that the PRC is commonly known as "China".


The adoption of the ''Zhonghua minzu'' concept has given rise to the reinterpretation or rewriting of Chinese history. For example, the Manchu Dynasty was originally often characterized as a "conquering regime" or a "non-Han" regime. Following the adoption of the ''Zhonghua minzu'' ideology, which regards the Manchus as a member of the ''Zhonghua minzu'', the distinction between non-native and native dynasties had to be abandoned. In the new orthodoxy, the Manchus, being as "Chinese" as the Han, could no longer be regarded as "barbarian conquerors", and the Qing empire could no longer be regarded as a "conquering empire".

Rewriting history also meant reassessing the role of many traditional hero figures. Heroes such as Yue Fei and Koxinga, who were originally considered to have fought for China against barbarian incursions, have been recharacterized by some as ''minzu yingxiong'' who fought not against barbarians but against other members of the ''Zhonghua minzu'' . At the same time, China exemplified heroes such as Genghis Khan, who became a "Chinese hero" by virtue of the fact that the Mongols are considered part of the ''Zhonghua minzu''.

Genghis Khan himself was an early precursor of some elements of the ''Zhonghua Minzu'', adopting the principle of meritocracy and employing a multi-ethnic contingent in his administrative entourage and military ranks, such as the Khitan statesman and Han Chinese general Guo Kan; the Mongol empire encompassed cultures and ethnicities from the Yellow Sea to the Black Sea. This concept was further extrapolated by Genghis Khan’s grandson Kublai Khan, who finally defeated the Southern Song, and unified China under the Yuan Dynasty with a multi-ethnic governmental administration.

The ''Zhonghua Minzu'' concept in practice is a model of affirmative action, in which Chinese nationals who are not of the ethnic Han majority, are entitled to preferential university entry status, favorable tax laws, non-compliance to the one-child policy, among many other preferential conditions under Chinese law for ethnic minorities.This has in fact led to a tremendous surge in the population of ethnic minorities in China, which number about 5% of the total Chinese population in the 1950s, to about 10% in 2006 of the total in the year 2007; a birth rate about three times that of the ethnic Han majority group in the last half-century.

Despite the superficial application of the ''Zhonghua Minzu'' concept to ethnic groups and history, the older concept of China as largely synonymous with the Han ethnic group is still widespread, even in China. For instance, discussions of Chinese cuisine usually refer to the culinary practices of and subdivisions within the Han majority, and do not seriously pretend to categorize "Chinese" food according to the theoretical framework of ''Zhonghua minzu''.


The theory behind the ideology of ''Zhonghua minzu'' is that it includes not only the Han but also other within China, such as the Mongols, Manchus, , Tibetans, Tuvans, etc. Supporters of the separate historical identities of different ethnic groups reject the notion these ethnic groups are part of a single people with Han Chinese. Proponents of Tibetan independence or Uighur independence reject the concept of ''Zhonghua minzu'' as grounds for a unified nation-state, with some argue that their peoples have a culture, history of political independence, and sense of nationhood which is quite distinct from that of the Han Chinese or China.

The boundaries of who is or is not a member of the Chinese nation are not necessarily consistent. A person of Russian , Korean , Vietnamese , Kyrgyz , Hmong , or Mongol ethnicity with Chinese citizenship would be considered a full member of the Zhonghua Minzu. A Russian living in Russia, a Korean living in Korea, a Vietnamese living in Vietnam, a Kyrgyz living in Kyrgyzstan, a Hmong person living in Southeast Asia, or a Mongol living in Mongolia would almost universally be considered not to be. On the other hand, ''Cháoxiǎn Zú'' living and working in Korea or Mongolian from Inner Mongolia living and working in the independent state of Mongolia would be considered members of the ''Zhonghua Minzu'', which can give rise to potential issues of identity.

Whether ethnic Han Chinese living and not having Chinese citizenship are considered part of this Chinese nationality depends on the speaker and the context. More often than not, overseas Chinese in Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore make a clear distinction between being Chinese in a political sense and being Chinese in an ethnic sense, making it unclear whether or not they belong to such a group that contains both political and ethnic connotations.

The conceptual boundaries of the ''Zhonghua minzu'' may be complicated by independent countries such as Mongolia and Korea, with their differing interpretations of historical peoples and states. For instance, the idea of as a "Chinese hero" is contested by Mongolia, which since the fall of socialism has explicitly positioned Chinggis Khan as the father of the Mongolian state. In opposition to this, it is common to point out that there are more ethnic Mongolians in China than in the state of Mongolia.

A dispute of a similar nature has arisen over the status of the state of Goguryeo in ancient history, with the Chinese claiming it as Chinese on the grounds that much of it existed within the current borders of China. Some of historical territories of the kingdom of Goguryeo were within current borders of China, and is on that Chinese nationalists say they are part of the heterogeneous origin of the Chinese nation in China. This claim is generally rejected outside of China.

Related studies

* Afrocentrism
* American exceptionalism
* Anthropocentrism
* Ethnocentrism
* Eurocentrism
* Pan-European identity
* Orientalism
* Postmodernism

Zai sheng yuan

"Zhai Sheng Yuan" is a Mandarin phrase that means to be reborn close to someone in the next life because of a fierce, inter-soul connection between the two of you that was formed in the life before. The word "Yuan" literally means a spiritual bond between two individuals, and "Zai Sheng" means to be born again. Although other civilizations don't have terms for it, there has long been speculation that twins were the product of extreme closeness in their previous lives, and likewise is there the global idea of having "soul mates." The word in itself has a romantic quality but can refer to spiritual and emotional intimacy between family members and friends as well. In essence, "Zai Sheng Yuan" carries a connotation similar to the gaelic term "Anmchara," which means "soul-friend." The Mandarin phrase has enjoyed a muted popularity in Chinese culture.

Yuelu Academy

The Yuelu Academy is located on the east side of Yuelu Mountain in Changsha, the capital of Hunan , China, on the west bank of the Xiang River.

It was founded in 976, the 9th year of the Song Dynasty under the reign of Emperor Kaibao, and was one of four most renowned Shuyuan .

The renowned Zhu Xi and Zhang Shi both lectured at the academy.

In 1903 the academy became a university, and in 1926 it was officially named Hunan University.

As one of the four most prestigious academies over the last 1000 years in China, Yuelu Academy has been a famous institution of higher learning as well as a centre of academic activities and cultures since it was formally set up in 976 . The Academy, which has survived the Song, , and dynasties, was converted into Hunan Institute of Higher Learning in 1903. It was later renamed Hunan Normal College, Hunan Public Polytechnic School, and finally Hunan University in 1926.

The academy has witnessed more than a thousand years of history and is the only one of the ancient Chinese academies of Classical Learning to have evolved into a modern institution of higher learning. The historical transformation from Yuelu Academy to Hunan University can be seen as the epitome of the development of China's higher education, a change which mirrors the vicissitudes of . As a part of Hunan University, today the academy is a center of publication and research of the ancient Chinese language, and is one of the most important academic and centers in China.


Yuan or Yuanfen is a Buddhist-related concept that means the principle that dictates a person's relationships and encounters, usually positive, such as the affinity among s or lovers. In common usage the term can be defined as the "binding force" that links two persons together in any relationship. The concept of synchronicity from the Swiss psychologist Carl Jung can be seen as similar to ''yuánfèn'', which Chinese people also believe to be a universal force governing the happening of things to some people at some places. ''Yuánfèn'' belongs to the family of concepts known in theology as determinism.

Some believe that the driving forces and causes behind ''yuánfèn'' are the actions done in the previous reincarnations. Therefore, it can be understood as the relational- as opposed to the physical- aspect of ''karma'' in Buddhism. However, while ''karma'' often refers to the consequences of an individual's actions on him- or herself, ''yuán'' is always used in conjunction with two persons.

The proverb ''yǒu yuán wú fèn'' , "Have fate without destiny," is sometimes used to describe couples who meet, but who do not for whatever reason stay together.

Unlike other Chinese social relations, which describe abstract, but easily noticeable, connections between people, nowadays, Chinese merely use this word poetically or to emphasize a meant-to-be relationship, and almost never in a serious business or legal situation.


* The proverbial saying "Have without destiny" refers to couples who were fated to come together, but not destined to ''stay'' together, and as such is sometimes used as a break-up line.
* Upon meeting a person who is hard to find, one might aptly exclaim: "It is ''yuánfèn'' that has brought us together!"
* When one encounters another repeatedly in various locations such that it seems to be more than coincidence, one can refer to ''yuánfèn''.
* As a counter-example, when two people know each other, e.g. as penpals, but never have the opportunity to meet face-to-face, it can be said that their ''yuánfèn'' is too superficial or thin.

The proverb: 百世修来同船渡,千载修得共枕眠

* Literally: It takes hundreds of reincarnations to bring two persons to ride in the same boat; it takes a thousand eons to bring two persons to share the same pillow. This goes to show just how precious ''yuánfèn'' is.

* An alternative of this proverb is: 十年修得同船渡,百年修得共枕眠 ,which means literally: ten years of meditation bring two people to cross a river in the same ferry, and a hundred years of meditation bring two people to rest their heads on the same pillow. It conveys the same message.


Often ''yuánfèn'' is said to be the equivalent of "fate" or "destiny". However, these words do not have the element of the past playing a role in deciding the outcome of the uncertain future. The most common Chinese term for "fate" or "destiny" is ''mìngyùn'' , literally "the turn of events in life".

"Providence" and "predestination" are also not exact translations, because these words imply that the things happen by the will of God or s, whereas ''yuánfèn'' does not necessarily involve divine intervention.

Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture

Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture is an autonomous prefecture in Jilin province, in the northeastern part of . Yanbian is south of Heilongjiang, east of Jilin's Baishan City, north of North Korea's North Hamgyong Province, and west of Russia. Yanbian is designated as an autonomous prefecture due to the large number of living in the region. The prefectural capital is Yanji, and the area is 42,700 km?.

The Prefecture has an important Balhae archaeological site: the Ancient Tombs at Longtou Mountain, which includes the Mausoleum of Princess Zhenxiao.


The prefecture is subdivided into eight : six county-level cities and two :
*Yanji City : formerly county until 1950s
* City : established in 1965
* City : formerly county until 1987
*Hunchun City : formerly county until 1983
*Dunhua City : formerly county until 1985
*Helong City : formerly county until 1993
*Antu County
*Wangqing County

The above counties and cities are divided into 642 villages .


In the Ming Dynasty, Yanbian was governed by the Jianzhou Guard-district , and in the late Qing Dynasty the area was divided into the Yanji and Hunchun subprefectures.

In the 19th century, Korean immigrants migrated en masse from the Korean peninsula to China. After the foundation of the Republic of China, a second wave arrived. The population increase was caused by the Japanese invasion of that region. The Japanese were trying to use Korean immigration to diffuse the staying power of Chinese in that region. After the end of World War II, many Koreans did not go back to Korea, even though their country had been liberated . Instead, they joined the Chinese Civil War and were mobilized by both Chinese communists and the Chinese Nationalists. When the civil war was over, the new Chinese government gave Koreans their own autonomous region in 1952. Yanbian was upgraded to an ethnic autonomous prefecture in 1955.

In 1952, the Korean migrants composed some 60% of the local population, but by 2000 their share shrank to 32%. The Chinese authorities subsidize Korean language schools and publications, but also take measures to prevent an emergence of the Korean irredentism in the area. From the late 1990s the Koreans began to be assimilated into Chinese culture with increasing speed, often switching to daily use of Chinese and choosing to attend the Chinese language schools.

The name "Yanbian" was created in the 1920s, because it stretches on the boundary of three nations. It was also in the ''Yan''ji Border-affairs Public Bureau, where ''Yanji'' means ''Luck of the Stretch''. During the Manchukuo period, it was called Kan-do Province by the Japanese. The same characters when used as hanja in are pronounced and romanized as , however, the name Kil Im Song is more frequently used by Koreans to refer to the entire larger region of North East China.


*Geographic coordinates: 41°59'47" - 44°30'42", 127°27'43" - 131°18'33" E
*Boundary length: 755.2 km
**China-Korea: 522.5 km
**China-Russia: 232.7 km

Mountains that are in the prefecture are:
*The central range of Changbai Mountains
*Zhangguangcai Peak
*Harba Peak
*Peony Peak
*Old Master Peak
*Nan'gang Mountain Range

There have been over 40 types of minerals and 50 kinds of metals, including gold, lead, zinc copper, silver, manganese and , discovered near or in the mountains.

Average land height is 500 metres above sea level.

Main rivers include:
*Songhua River
*Mudan River
*Tumen River
**Gaya River : branch of the Tumen
**Hunchun River

The rivers sustain 28 running water processing facilities.

The rivers created basins, which are suitable for agricultural uses, like rice paddies and bean farms.


Railways include:
*Chang-Tu Line : most important
*Mu-Tu Line
*Chao-Kai Line : Yangchuan-Shantun Line
*Tumen-Hunchun Railway: under construction

Public roads are 1,480-kilometre altogether. There are four airports.


Ethnicity compositions:
**57.4% Han Chinese
**39.7% Korean
**2.4% Manchus
**0.3% Hui Chinese
**0.1% other , including the Mongols
*Growth rate 0.4%.

Population density: 51 people per km?.

Like the peninsular Koreans, Yanbian Koreans' most common is Kim. Many immigrated from Korea during the 19th century, and again during the Japanese Occupation.

The Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture has an index of urbanization standard at 55.6%, 20 percentage points greater than the provincial average and 25 more than the national average .


Both and are used as official languages in Yanbian Ethnic Korean Autonomous Prefecture. Most ethnic Koreans in this area are bilingual. Like Koreans living in the Korean peninsula, ethnic Koreans in Yanbian use Western punctuation in writing.

The Museum of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture was planned in 1960, and constructed in 1982. It contains over 10,000 exhibits, including 11 first-level artifacts. The exhibits' labels and explanations are bilingual in Korean and Chinese, and tour guides are also available in both languages.


There are seven public parks in Yanbian's green space , including:
*Yanji People's Park
*Youth Lake Park

Also popular among locals during holidays and festivities.


Nature and Environment

Over 70% are originally forest in the prefecture, so there is a rich diversity of life.
*1,460 species of native animals
*250 species of native plants.



Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture is an important football region to Chinese football. For 50 years more than 40 footballers have ever been selected into Chinese national football team.
The first professional football team in this prefecture is Jilin Three Stars Football Club. From 1994 to 2000, this club had been playing for 7 years in Chinese top football league. In 2000, they were relegated from the top league. Because of the poor economic condition the club was sold to Lucheng Group, a rich group in Zhejiang Province.

In 2001, Yanbian Football Club was founded. They now playing in the second-class football league.

Xiao Tao Sheng

Xiao Tao Sheng is a who specializes in portraying Chinese culture through his oil paintings, called ''East in West'' paintings. He is a class I painter and professor, and currently the vice director of the . He is a member of the China Artists Association.

Xiao's art works were introduced to the public by China Central Television , Sichuan TV and Chengdu TV. Most of his award-winning paintings had been selected for national exhibitions in China and abroad, including the International Arts City, Paris in December 2003 and at the south lobby of the United Nations Secretariat, New York in January 2005. The publications about his work namely ''Collection of Sketches by Xiao Tao Sheng'' and ''Collection of Oil Paintings by Xiao Tao Sheng'' had been included in the collections of the U.S. Library of Congress, New York's Columbia University Library and the Chinese University of Hong Kong. His works had also been published in art magazines in China, Japan, Hong Kong, the United States and Canada.

White Deer Grotto Academy

The White Deer Grotto Academy was located at the foot of Wulou Peak in , now in Jiujiang, Jiangxi province. It was one of the Four Great of China.

The academy had its beginnings as a place for the pursuit of learning by the Tang Dynasty poet Li Bo when he was living in retirement. As Li Bo kept a white deer, he was known as the White Deer Teacher and the school premises themselves as the White Deer Grotto. Between the years 937—942, when the area was under the control of the Southern Tang, a school was officially established here under the name "Lushan Guoxue" .

In the early years of the Northern Song dynasty, which began in 960, the Lushan Guoxue was transformed into an academy, known as the White Deer Grotto Academy. The academy was the recipient of imperial favour from the Emperor , who bestowed on it books and awarded official rank to the academy's head. However, it later fell into disrepair.

In 1179-80, during the Southern Song dynasty, the academy was rebuilt and expanded by Zhu Xi, later to become the most preeminent of the s. Zhu Xi, who was serving as prefect of Nankang Prefecture , rebuilt the academy based on the layout of the Temple of Confucius at Qufu. The new academy opened its doors to students and scholars in 1180. It was involved in instruction, the collection and preservation of books, religious sacrifices, the development of curricula, and lectures by famous scholars, including such notable names as Lu Jiuyuan, Lü Zuqian, and later Wang Yangming. The academy continued to flourish for eight centuries. The rules of the Academy as set down by Zhu Xi had a profound and lasting influence on the subsequent development of Confucianism.

UFO sightings in China

This is a list of alleged sightings of unidentified flying objects or UFOs in China.


* An alleged UFO was spotted and photographed over Hebei, China.


* In June 1994, while working at the Red Flag logging camp in the northwest portion of Wuchang, Meng Zhaoguo and two coworkers claimed that they had seen a strange metallic shine coming from Mount Phoenix.


* On August 17, a UFO was spotted and recorded hovering over Nanjing, China.


Tuzki is a popular illustrated rabbit, created by Wang Momo of the . Featured in a variety of emoticons, her character has become popular with and users.

Motorola is currently using Tuzki to promote its smartphone in Asia, touting its Internet and instant messaging capabilities.